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Peoples settled in what is now Texas thousands of years before European explorers arrived in North America. Some American Indian oral histories recount how their ancestors traveled to the area by water or land. A large amount of stone artifacts made at least 16, years ago have been found in Central Texas. For many years, scientists believed that the first Americans came from Asia 13, years ago. The discovery of these artifacts suggests that humans came to the Americas much earlier.

The mission is closed in Austin, receives authority to continue the colonizing effort. Austin received a grant from the Mexican government and began colonization in the region of the Brazos River. Mexican officials approve Austin's plan to bring three hundred families into his colony.

This group becomes known as the "Old Three Hundred. Mid - Constitution of gave Mexico a republican form of government. It failed to define the rights of the states within the republic, including Texas. The rebels flee when approad by Mexican troops.

20th Century Texas History Timeline. - Sept. 8 - The "Great Hurricane," destroys much of Galveston and kills 6, people there. - Jan. 10 - Oil found by mining engineer Capt. A.F. Lucas at Spindletop near Beaumont catapults Texas into the petroleum age. - Poll tax becomes a requirement for voting. - Texans votes for US senator in the Democratic primary, although the Texas.

Relations between Anglo settlers and the Mexican government deteriorate. The Mexicans surrender on June Austin, is held. Mirabeau B. Lamar, leaves Central Texas on its way west to establish trade with and solidify Texas' claims to territory around Santa Fe. Members of group are taken prisoner by Mexican troops, mard to Mexico City and imprisoned. They are finally released in Louis, Mo. Service discontinued in March at the outbreak of the Civil War.

Indianola is never rebuilt. James Hogg, is established by the Texas legislature to regulate freight rates and to establish rules for railroad operations.

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The new technology spread across much of North America around this time. Its precise origin is unknown, but it may have been brought into the region by new migrants. The bow was lighter and required fewer resources to make. The arrow was much more lethal than a spear because of its speed, silence, and accuracy.

Scallorn Points. It is said that Texas owes its name to the Caddo.

The agriculture-based Caddoes lived in villages and large fortified towns surrounding large plazas with earthen mounds. Large settlements with mound centers like this existed up and down the Mississippi River and were interconnected through trade.

One of Texas's best examples of a Caddo mound is located in present-day rokee County. Caddo Pot made by Jeri Redcorn, Caddo. They lived in pueblo like villages where they practiced horticulture and bison hunting.

Over a period of years, they dug hundreds of quarries for better flint to make stone tools. Pottery fragments found at Antelope Creek sites provide evidence of extensive trade.

The Antelope Creek people left the area abruptly around AD, perhaps because of drought conditions, disease, or the arrival of hostile Apas to the area. Antelope Creek Pottery Sherds. Historians believe that the Apa moved down from their native territory in Canada and into North America sometime between and They belong to the southern branch of the Athabascan group, whose languages constitute a large family, with speakers in Alaska, western Canada, and the American Southwest.

By the s two groups settled in Texas - the Lipan Apa and the Mescalero. The Mescalero eventually moved on to present-day New Mexico. The arrival of the Apa would begin to alter the trade and territorial claims among the diverse tribes who had settled the area before them.

Image courtesy of the Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa. On October 12, he read the Bahamas. Six months later, he returned to Spain with gold, cotton, American Indian handicrafts, exotic parrots, and other strange beasts.

His tales of the native peoples, land, and resources in North America ignited the era of Spanish colonization. He set out with four ships and men to find a passage to the Pacific Ocean. There are few records detailing his exploration, although one Spanish document does indicate that he sailed around the coast of Florida, into the Gulf of Mexico, and up a river dotted with palm trees and the villages of native peoples. Earlier interpretations of his voyage identified this river as the Rio Grande, but later data shows that it was probably the Soto la Marina, located in Mexico.

His trip seemed doomed from the beginning. Many of his men died, deserted, or were killed by the American Indians whose people and villages the expedition attacked and pillaged. He kept a detailed diary which has become an invaluable primary source describing the life and peoples of early Texas. This encounter, which Cabeza de Vaca wrote about in his diary, is the first recorded meeting of Europeans and Texas American Indians.

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The Karankawa were several bands of coastal people with a shared language and culture who inhabited the Gulf Coast of Texas from Galveston Bay southwestward to Corpus Christi Bay. Conscience-stricken by the abuse of American Indians at the hands of Spanish conquistadors, he crusaded on the native peoples' behalf for over five decades. Inde las Casas participated in a debate in Oaxaca, Mexico, where he argued for the American Indians' right to be treated as individuals with dignity and against the Spanish efforts to convert native peoples to both the Catholic faith and the Spanish culture.

His blistering work inA Brief Report on the Destruction of the Indians, convinced King Charles V to outlaw the conversion practices, but riots among land holders in New Spain Mexico convinced authorities not to make any changes in their treatment of American Indians. Finding gold was one objective of Spanish colonization in North America. Various historical accounts describe the soldiers' astonishment at the Texas landscape, including Palo Duro Canyon, and the huge, hump-backed cows buffalo that roamed the grasslands.

Coronado never found any gold in the Panhandle, and the expedition returned to Mexico in Hernando de Soto led an exploration of the Gulf Coast area from until his death in present-day Arkansas in This expedition marked the first European crossing of the Mississippi River. Opinions differ as to the exact route the Moscoso expedition took through Texas, but recent scholarship suggests that they traveled south from East Texas toward present-day Nacogdos and then into the Hill Country before turning back toward the Mississippi River in Arkansas.

Oil springs and tar pits were known to the Texas Indians. They used the oozings to treat rheumatism and skin diseases. Oil was also seen by the Spanish explorers as early as Julywhen members of the De Soto expedition saw oil floating in the water near Sabine Pass and used it to caulk their boats.

Later, settlers used surface oil for axel grease and for lighting and fuel. Image courtesy of U. Geological Survey. The ships, including six armed vessels, carried cargo and were headed to various parts of the world including New Spain Mexico and the Indies.

On April 29,three ships were wrecked in a storm on Padre Island, near present-day Port Mansfield. In the s and s, excavation efforts retrieved thousands of artifacts such as cannons, silver coins, gold bullion, astrolabes, and tools from the wreckage of the San Esteban and the Espiritu Santo.

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The third sunken ship, the Santa Maria de Yclarwas destroyed during ship channel construction in the s. The Spanish missionary system was intended to convert American Indians to Christianity and teach them how to live according to Spanish ways. Missionaries often accompanied conquistadors on their explorations in North America. The first missionaries passed through far west Texas in on their way to the pueblos of New Mexico.

Though unsuccessful in establishing a colony among the Pueblo people, Spanish conquistador Antonio de Espejo left a valuable account of his encounters with the Jumano people of Texas's Big Bend area in to The Jumano were trading partners of the Spanish for almost two centuries before famine and war sent their population into a steep decline.

They were so grateful to have survived the journey that they held what some believe was the first "thanksgiving" feast in what would become the United States.

With this act, the foundation was laid for two centuries of Spanish control of Texas and the American southwest. Spanish conquistadors first crossed Texas in search of gold in New Mexico.

Bythe Spanish had established a capital at Santa Fe. Their primary goals were to convert the American Indians to Christianity and to teach them to live according to Spanish culture.

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The Spanish crown commissioned Franciscan friars to establish missions. From the pueblos of New Mexico, a few priests began to venture into West Texas. Almost 50 years after their first encounter, the Jumano were revisited by the Spanish in This would mark the beginning of their relations with the Spanish. Some Jumano lived nomadic lifestyles, while others lived in more permanent houses built of reeds or sticks or of masonry, like the pueblos of New Mexico.

The Jumano were renowned for their trading and language skills. In time, these expert traders helped establish trade routes as well as diplomatic relationships among American Indians, the Spanish, and the French.

Jumano, Drawing by Frank Weir. Her visions were regarded as religious miracles. She was known as the "Woman in Blue" because of her blue Franciscan clothing. Inthey traveled to evangelize the Jumanos. They were unable to supply or defend the outpost, and after six months, they were forced to abandon the mission. This arrow point is believed to be of Jumano origin. Franciscans traveling through La Junta in performed the first Catholic mass in Texas. InFranciscans established a mission, but they were expelled after just two years.

After the revolt, Pueblo people began trading the horses they had taken control of. The acquisition of horses, and the ability to travel longer distances more easily, would transform the territorial politics between tribes throughout America. Image courtesy U. Inthe Pueblo people rose up, killed Spanish colonizers, and drove the remaining 2, Spanish out of New Mexico. The village of El Paso became the base of Spanish operations for the next 12 years.

The Tonkawa belonged to the Tonkawan linguistic family that was once composed of a number of small sub-tribes that lived in present-day Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The word "tonkawa" is a Waco term meaning "they all stay together.

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In an the people of La Junta near present-day Presidio petitioned for missionaries to return to their area. Bythese missions were abandoned. The Spanish began making entradas into Texas in the s. They intended to explore and expand into the far reas of Spanish territory in order to buffer any encroachment from the French. From tothe Spanish led roughly seven expeditions from Mexico to Texas. These early explorers brought cattle, sheep, and goats to the Texas frontier.

Bythe Spanish realized the need to defend Texas against the French and blazed a network of trails from Mexico City to Louisiana. Byboth missions were abandoned. Circa In Spanish officials in New Mexico documented the presence of numerous Comans on the northeastern frontier of that province.

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As the Comans moved south, they came into conflict with tribes already living on the South Plains, particularly the Apas, who had dominated the region before the arrival of the Comans. The Apas were forced south by the Coman and the two became mortal enemies. Plains Indian Girl with Melon, - By Friedrich Richard Petri.

Missionaries occupied the sites sporadically until the end of the Spanish era in Texas. On May 1,the Spanish established a mission-presidio complex approximately midway between the Rio Grande Valley and the missions of East Texas. This was the founding of the city of San Antonio, the most significant Texas settlement of the Spanish era.

The mission of San Antonio de Valero, later known as the Alamo, was moved to its present location in The Franciscans turned new attention to East Texas beginning in They established a mission along the Nes River and built three additional missions in Nacogdos County.

InFrench troops attacked a nearby Louisiana mission in an event known to history as the Chicken War because it was little more than a raid on a henhouse. Nonetheless, the Spanish withdrew from East Texas for two years. The Spanish brought cattle to New Spain soon after they began colonization in the s.

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The first cattle arrived in Texas in the s. By the s, missionaries were operating cattle rans around San Antonio and Goliad. Ranching in Texas originated near San Antonio and Goliad in the s. As the missions continued to fade into decline, individual ranrs became prominent due to generous land grants received from the Spanish Crown.

One large ranch resulted from the Cavazos land grant, which was a sprawling 4, acres. The East Texas missions were difficult to supply, staff, and defend, and most lasted only a few years. Inthree missions were relocated from East Texas to the site of present-day Austin.

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The following year, the missions were moved further south to San Antonio. The first reference to the Coman in present-day Texas comes inwhen a small scouting band appeared in San Antonio looking for their enemies, the Lipan Apa. The Comans were to become the most dominant people in the area. The name "Coman" comes from an Ute word that means "enemy. They became horse experts and migrated into Texas in order to hunt bison and capture the wild horses that roamed the land.

They eventually claimed vast areas of north, central, and west Texas as part of "Comanria. Joseph Harrison, Jr. When the enemy Coman arrived to the area, the Apa agreed to a peace treaty with the Spanish. The two buried a hatt in the ground in a ceremony in San Antonio. This led the Spanish to move forward with plans to build missions in Apa territory. Originally from the area of present-day Kansas, a band of Wichitas moved from Oklahoma and settled along the Red River near present-day Nocona, Texas.

They would live there until aboutwhen they gradually returned to present-day Oklahoma.

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The Wichita called themselves Kitikiti'sh, meaning "raccoon eyes," because the designs of tattoos around the men's eyes resembled the eyes of the raccoon.

They lived in villages of dome-shaped grass houses.

They farmed extensive fields of corn, tobacco, and melons along the streams where they made their homes and seasonally left their villages for annual hunts. Wichita paint bag, s. Image courtesy The Field Museum, Chicago. Once the Spanish formed an alliance with the Apas, expansion of ranching lands became safer.

Missions tended to have the best land, which put them in direct competition with the ranrs. Conflicts developed, and lawsuits between missions and ranrs became common at this time.

The Spanish also hoped to form an alliance with the Apa against the Coman and allied northern tribes. In March ofover 2, Coman and allied norther tribes staged a massive attack, burning down the mission and killing all but one of the missionaries.

With horses and French weapons, the Wichita were a stronger force than the Spanish. The Spanish were defeated and forced to retreat. French musket, s. The Spanish negotiated a treaty with the Coman, who agreed not to make war on missionized Apas. Continued conflicts with Apas made it impossible for Comans to keep their promise. This ultimately led Spanish officials to advocate for breaking their alliance with the Apa in favor of a Spanish-Coman alliance aimed at subduing the Apas.

As a result of British colonial expansion from the east, the Alabama and Coushatta Tribes began to migrate from what is now Alabama to the area of Big Thicket in present-day Texas. By they had moved across the Sabine River into Spanish Texas. One year later, also with the help of a Frenchman, Spain made a treaty at San Antonio with a Coman band.

Other bands, however, continued to raid Spanish settlements. Coman War Bonnet, - Since they first arrived to the Americas in the early s, European diseases decimated diverse indigenous communities. In a smallpox epidemic killed hundreds of thousands of Europeans and Native peoples in North America. The virus was carried by people along the trade routes from Mexico City and moved north to Comanria and farther north to the Shoshone.

The deadly diseases greatly shifted the balance of power between American Indians and Europeans. Detail of Cabello to Croix, reporting smallpox epidemic, According to a newly enacted law, all wild animals and unbranded livestock were the property of the Spanish treasury.

The law also established the "Mustang Fund" which imposed a tax on ranrs for all the branded livestock they rounded up. Hoping to free his people from Spanish control, he formed a loose confederacy of groups that included the Tonkawas, the Lipan Apas, and some Comans and Caddos. Image courtesy Star of the Republic Museum. Trade between Texas and Louisiana had been prohibited early in the 18th century.

That ban was lifted in Ranching became more profitable as Spanish ranrs were able to drive their cattle along the Old San Antonio Road into the French territory of Louisiana. New Orleans soon became a major new market for ranrs.

Shortly after the trade ban was lifted inthe Spanish colonial government reversed their decision because of the surge of smuggling. Since trade with Louisiana was hugely profitable, however, illicit trade continued. In a rare moment of unity, ranrs and missionaries became allies in their opposition to Spain's regulation of trade.

The Coman accepted a peace deal with the Spanish, allowing Spaniards to travel through their lands. In exchange, Spain offered to help the Coman in their war with the Apa. Peace between the Spanish and Coman lasted 30 years. The Comans were to become the dominate force in the area, both in trade and warfare. Known as the San Fernando Memorial, the document argued that unbranded livestock belonged to ranrs since those animals were descended from the ranrs' animals.

The government agreed and allowed the ranrs to collect and brand the animals. Due to the San Fernando Memorial ruling, ranrs and missionaries planned a great round-up in La Bahia was the only mission to actually participate.

As many as 7, cattle were captured and branded. This event marked a shift in the balance of power between ranrs and missionaries.

Byranrs were no longer required to pay the Mustang Fund taxes and were given one tax-free year to round up and brand wild livestock. This change in policy resulted in the increased transportation of cattle to markets in Louisiana and northern Mexico where they were sold for their tallow, hides, and meat.

Cattle herds became severely depleted because of continual predator attacks as well as the increased market demands for cattle products. The cattle industry declined and ranrs turned their money-making efforts toward a new livestock source- wild mustangs. rokees were first reported in Texas inwhen a small band established a village on the Red River. American expansion had forced them to the west.

They were an agricultural people whose ancestral lands covered much of the southern Appalachian highlands, an area that included parts of Virginia, Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama.

In the summer of that year, a delegation of rokees, Pascagoulas, Chickasaws, and Shawnees sought permission from Spanish officials in Nacogdos to settle members of their tribes in that province. The request was approved by Spanish authorities, who intended to use the displaced tribes as a buffer against American expansion. Gift of the Thomas Gilcrease Foundation, InMoses Austin traveled to San Antonio and negotiated permission to settle Anglo American families in Texas, but he died before his plans could be realized.

Moses' son, Stephen F. Austin, traveled to Texas to renegotiate his father's grant and to scout land near Brazoria. In Decemberthe younger Austin began bringing the settlers to their new home. Image courtesy of Star of the Republic of Texas Museum.

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In search of new opportunities in the unsettled territory of Tejas, Moses Austin hoped to bring families to the Mexican province in With the help of Baron de Bastrop, Austin received approval from the Spanish governor to bring settlers into Tejas.

Moses Austin died inhowever, and his son, Stephen F. Austin, inherited the land grant for families. Austin settled the land near the Brazos and Colorado in The Mexican territory of Tejas was opened to settlers on the conditions that they become Mexican citizens, learn Spanish and adopt the Catholic faith.

Moses Austin, a founder of America's lead industry, obtained government permission to bring colonists to the territory. He died before the "Texas Venture" began and his son, Stephen, led families on the journey to establish new colonies along the Brazos, Colorado and San Bernard Rivers.

Stephen F. Austin established a settlement of Anglo Americans who found the ranching system in Texas in decline. The ranching knowledge and outstanding roping skills of vaqueros Mexican cowboys helped revive and rebuild the flagging ranching industry. As the people of Mexico began to feel exploited by Spanish colonialism, a series of revolts began in On September 27,the Spanish signed a treaty recognizing Mexico's independence. Since Moses Austin had been granted permission by Spain to bring American families to Texas, his son Stephen had to renegotiate the land grant and settlements with the new Mexican government.

After two years of waiting to receive a grant, Richard Fields tried to unite diverse tribes in Texas into an alliance and began to encourage other displaced tribes to settle in Texas. Chief Bowl, Courtesy Jenkins Company. InStephen F. Austin received permission from Mexican authorities to bring settlers from the United States to Texas. Of the first families, known as the "Old Three Hundred," sixty-nine brought enslaved people. The Mexican government advised Stephen F.

Austin that it would not provide resources to administer or defend the fledgling Tejas colonies. Austin hired ten men to "act as rangers for the common defense" against Indian raids. With that, the legend of the Texas Rangers began. Mexico established rules for settling colonies in During this time, they also joined Coahuila and Texas, forming a unified Mexican state "Coahuila y Tejas.

Mexico encouraged Anglo Americans to settle the sparsely-populated Texas territory, both to increase ranching and commerce and to defend against American Indians and aggressive European powers. On March 24,the Mexican Congress passed colonization laws that stipulated that settlers practice Christianity and take loyalty oaths to the Mexican and state constitutions in order to become citizens.

InHaden Edwards received a land grant in east Texas for settlers. A dispute for leadership soon broke out in Edwards' colony. He and his allies formed an alliance with the rokees and declared - ignitesucceed.com republic of Fredonia. Mexican troops restored order, but the incident led Mexico to severely restrict further immigration into Texas from the United States and Europe, a bitter pill for the majority of colonists who had remained peaceable.

Settlers weren't ready to embrace their new Mexican identity upon moving into the country. Largely, they didn't see themselves as Mexican nationals and, in fact, referred to themselves as "Texians. Because of the lack of allegiance to the nation, Mexican officials feared they would lose control of the state. They began encouraging more migration from Mexicans into the area.

Published untilTexas' first newspaper kept settlers informed of news by providing English translations of Mexican government laws and decrees. Anglo settlers who arrived in Texas in the s brought with them the skills for farming, but many were enticed by cattle ranching instead.

Fearing the possibility of losing control of Texas, Mexico banned further immigration from the United States on April 6, They encouraged immigration from Mexico and European countries, placed more restrictions on slavery, and increased military presence in the region. This initiative angered Texans, who pushed for statehood and self-rule.

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On April 6,the Mexican government passed several new laws that were very unpopular with the Anglo American settlers. These laws increased the presence of the Mexican military, implemented new taxes, forbade the settlers from bringing more slaves into Texas, and banned new immigration from the United States. The grievances that would lead to the Texas Revolution had begun to accumulate.

The Mexican army established a garrison at Anahuac to collect tariffs, end smuggling, and enforce the ban on immigration from the United States. Tensions rose to a boil when the fort's commander took in several runaway slaves. The unrest culminated at nearby Velasco when a group of settlers tried to take a cannon from a Mexican fort.

At least ten Texans and five Mexican soldiers died in the fighting. Texans were initially okay with this development because of Santa Anna's support for the Constitution ofwhich was very similar to the U. However, Santa Anna nullified the Constitution in favor of a more centralized government and was no longer supportive of Texas self-rule.

At the Convention of56 Texas delegates drafted a resolution requesting that Mexico roll back many of the changes in Mexican law that took place in Texans wanted Mexico to allow immigration from the U. Austin, along with Dr. James B. Miller, presented the proposals to Santa Anna. Austin was imprisoned in Mexico City on suspicion of inciting insurrection.

Eventually, the Mexican government repealed the Law ofbut would not grant statehood to Texas. Amidst the conflict, thousands upon thousands of Americans were immigrating to Texas. Facts about slave rebellions are hard to come by, but inabout enslaved people planned to seize land along the Brazos River.

The leaders were arrested and whipped, and several were hanged.

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Invigilantes in Colorado County claimed that enslaved people were plotting with local Mexican Texans. Many historians believe the story was an excuse to expel the Mexicans. Austin after the Battle of Gonzales, when Mexican authorities tried to seize the town's cannon and were met with the now-famous battle cry, "Come and take it! Santa Anna's determination to quell the rebellion would end with the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, and Texas' independence. Image courtesy of Daniel Mayer, Creative Commons.

Tension grew between Texas and Mexico. Texans, with a growing influx of American settlers, pushed for separate statehood, resulting in many minor skirmishes with Mexico. The first notable battle of the Texas Revolution occurred when Texans at Gonzales refused to return a small cannon lent to them by Mexican authorities. On October 2, Colonel John H. Mexicans retreated, but the battle had just begun. A farmer and cattleman, McCulloch retained a lifelong fighting spirit.

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He later took up arms again to fight both the Mexicans and the Coman. The provisional Texas government passed a resolution officially creating a corps of over 50 rangers. These Rangers engaged in many skirmishes with American Indians and often joined with the Texian Army in fighting against Mexican troops in what became the opening battles of the Texas Revolution. A large force of mostly Comans attacked a private fort built by Silas and James Parker near the upper Navasota River.

In the attack Silas and two women were killed. His daughter Cynthia Ann 9son John 6and three others were taken by the Coman. The first Texas Congress met at Columbia in the fall of to set the border with Mexico at the Rio Grande, a decision based on an aggressive interpretation of the Louisiana Purchase.

The river remained under the control of Mexico, however, as the Mexican government did not recognize Texas' independence. Image courtesy of Svalbertian, Creative Commons. Anyone with one-eighth or more African heritage had to obtain permission from Congress to remain in Texas.

Free blacks were prohibited from voting or owning property, and interracial marriage was banned.

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Records show that whites petitioned frequently for exemptions to these rules on behalf of free black neighbors, but the tough rules remained in place. On March 1, 59 delegates held the Convention of at Washington-on-the-Brazos. There they drafted the Texas Declaration of Independence and adopted it on March 2.

During the Convention, delegates also drafted the Texas Constitution, outlining their plan for the new Republic. This took place only a month after Santa Anna entered Texas with his army of 6, men.

Travis' impassioned letter asking for reinforcements to defend the Alamo. Thirty-two Rangers read the fort on March 1.

On March 6, all 32 Rangers died. These Rangers are now known in history as the "Immortal Merely declaring independence was a long way from winning the revolution. On March 6,Santa Anna led an attack on the Alamo. Under the command of William B. Travis and James Bowie, Texas rebels fought a fierce battle against the Mexican army. The defenders of the Alamo were killed in the attack, including famed frontiersman and former U. Congressman David Crockett. News of the defeat spread to Gonzales, where Sam Houston had formed an army.

Feeling uignitesucceed.comepared for the advancing army, Houston ordered Gonzales be evacuated and burned. They fought the Mexican Army at the Battle of Coleto, but faced the same fate as the soldiers at the Alamo. They were defeated, and the Santa Anna gave the order to have Fannin's captured army executed. Independence seemed out of reach after the Alamo and Goliad. General Houston drew criticism for not having yet attacked Santa Anna's advancing army.

Ordered to stop his retreat by ad interim President David G. Burnet, Houston returned west, receiving word that Santa Anna's army was encamped on the west side of the Buffalo Bayou and the San Jacinto River, inside the present-day city limits of Houston. At p. With shouts of "Remember the Alamo!

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It is widely believed Santa Anna and his soldiers were indulging in an afternoon siesta and therefore were not ready to face the attack, which lasted approximately 18 minutes. Nine Texans were killed, and Mexicans lost their lives. Santa Anna was captured after the battle.

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And so began the Republic of Texas. Lamar as vice president. Houston appointed Stephen F. Austin to be Secretary of State. Austin died in office on December 27,at the age of At its beginning, Texas had a population of 38, Of these, 5, were enslaved. As more settlers arrived from the American South, the enslaved population grew rapidly. Bywhen Texas was annexed to the United States, there were at least 30, enslaved people, mostly working on plantations in East Texas.

The African slave trade had been outlawed by this time, but Galveston and Houston both still had slave dealers. The Texas Legislature passed an act authorizing Rangers to employ the services of "friendly" American Indian tribes as scouts and spies. Hays later credited Flacco with saving his life in more than one battle with the Comans.

The second president of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, took over a bankrupt and lawless country. Driven by a vision of future greatness, Lamar ruthlessly drove the rokee from Texas, waged war with the Coman, and undertook a disastrous expedition to open a trade route to Santa Fe.

He also founded a new capital in Austin and laid the foundation that would one day create schools, colleges, and world-famous universities. Despite the restrictions on free people of color, many found a way to prosper.

Documents show that Charity Bird of Jefferson County ran a successful bakery aroun earning enough to vacation in the U. Some emancipated women owned land. Under the second president of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, the capital was relocated to Austin.

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Many in Congress believed that Houston was too far from the original Texas settlements, so the commission surveyed land north of San Antonio between the Trinity and Colorado Rivers. Lamar set up a commission to begin researching potential locations for the new capital. They ultimately chose the village of Waterloo and changed the name to Austin to honor the legacy of Stephen F. As a result, land sales attracted more speculators than actual settlers.

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